- Short paper
- Open Access
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol estimation by the Anandaraja's formula – confirmation
© Gasko; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
- Received: 03 May 2006
- Accepted: 29 June 2006
- Published: 29 June 2006
The number of the indirect methods for LDL-C estimation is growing. Our result support the reliability of new Anandaraja's formula for low-density lipoprotein estimation from total cholesterol and triglycerides.
- Coronary Heart Disease Risk
- Brazil Population
- Plasma Total Concentration
- Atherogenic Particle
- Lipoprotein Measurement
Gazi et al  presented results of evaluation the accuracy of various formulas for the calculation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels – indirect methods – in patients with the metabolic syndrome. LDL-C according Friedewald's formula showed significant differences from other formulas in the total cohort, as well as in patients with metabolic syndrome. Different plasma lipid and lipoprotein analytical techniques – direct methods, however, yield results, which are highly correlated, yet significantly different, too .
It is possible to supplement next calculation. Anandaraja et al  published new formula for LDL-C estimation from two other parameters, total cholesterol and triglycerides, as substitution to well known Friedewald's formula.
Our team recently compared two methods of estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the direct Wako method versus Friedewald's formula . We studied over 10 000 consecutive patients with different diseases, from mixed rural and urban Brazil population.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level
Patients with triglycerides
<350 mg/dl (3,94 mmol/l)
Total sample number
Direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl; mmol/l)
116 ± 22 (2,99 ± 0,57)
115 ± 22 (2,97 ± 0,57)
Calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl; mmol/l)*
120 ± 24 (3,10 ± 0,62)
119 ± 23 (3,08 ± 0,59)
Calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl; mmol/l)†
115 ± 23 (2,97 ± 0,59)
114 ± 21 (2,95 ± 0,54)
Difference between direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl)*
- 4 ± 16
- 4 ± 14
Difference between direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl) †
1 ± 14
1 ± 14
Correlation coefficient between direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol*
Correlation coefficient between direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol†
In each very low-density lipoprotein particle secreted from the liver, and therefore in each intermediate-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a) particles, a single molecule of apolipoprotein B (apo B) is present from the time of its assembly to its catabolism, which does not exchange between lipoproteins. More than 90% of apo B is in the low-density lipoprotein particles, and therefore, plasma total concentration of apo B can be considered as a measure of the number of atherogenic particles. New Anandaraja's equation takes into account only total cholesterol and triglycerides. Some authors recommend including apo B measurement as acomponent of the standard lipoprotein measurements performed to assess cardiovascular disease risk . Contribution of LDL-C calculation with help of measured apo B is questionable. Apo B is real an independent risk factor.
In conclusion, LDL-C is the major indicator for initial classification of coronary heart disease risk status and lowering its level is a primary goal of therapy. The NCEP Working Group on Lipoprotein Measurement recommended the development of accurate direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol methods. All available direct methods have yet limitations for general use. Our results support the reliability of Anandaraja's formula as indirect low-density lipoprotein cholesterol estimation – originally used in Indian population – in Brazil population, too.
I would like to thank to the contributions Prof de Cordova, University of Blumenau, Blumenau, State Santa Catarina, Brazil.
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